What is a supervolcano
A supervolcano is a extreme large volcano that has a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) of 8. A supervolcano deposits more than 1,000 cubic kilometers. Like all volcanic eruptions a supervolcano occurs when the pressure of magma increases until the crust can longer handle it.
Dangers of a supervolcano
The short term dangers of a supervolcano depend on how far you from the eruption. Those living within a hundred miles of the explosion would have little chance of survival as the lava and heated gas spread out from the caldera. Those outside the 100 mile range would have to deal with volcanic ash particles in the air that can cause lung damage, clog engines and collapsing roofs. The below image shows the possible levels of ash after a Yellowstone supervolcano eruption.
The long term effects of a supervolcano are reduced sun light and volcanic particles in the air. The reduced sun light would cause global cooling and a mini ice age. This would almost completely shut down all agricultural. The volcanic particles in the air would shut down almost all transportation since the particles would clog the engines and kill most of the wildlife and farm animals. This would cause a global shutdown of commerce and people would be left to fend for themselves. The mini ice age could last up to ten years as the volcanic ash in the atmosphere slowly falls to earth.
Past supervolcano eruptions
|Name||Location||Years ago (approx.)||Ejecta bulk volume (approx.)|
|La Garita Caldera||Colorado, United States||27,800,000||5,000 km3|
|Lake Toba||Sumatra, Indonesia||74,000||2,800 km3|
|Huckleberry Ridge eruption||Idaho, United States||2,100,000||2,500 km3|
|Atana Ignimbrite||Antofagasta, Chile||4,000,000||2,500 km3|
|Taupo Nui a tia||North Island, New Zealand||340,000||2,000 km3|
|Heise Volcanic Field||Idaho, United States||4,500,000||1,800 km3|
|Heise Volcanic Field||Idaho, United States||6,000,000||1,500 km3|
|Cerro Guacha||Sur Lípez, Bolivia||5,700,000||1,300 km3|
|Mangakino Caldera||North Island, New Zealand||1,080,000||1,200 km3|
|Oruanui eruption||North Island, New Zealand||26,500||1,170 km3|
|Cerro Galán||Catamarca, Argentina||2,500,000||1,050 km3|
|Lava Creek eruption||Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, United States||640,000||1,000 km3|
Table source Wikipedia
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